Archivo de la categoría: history

Essay – Industrial Revolution

Here’s an essay I wrote for the History class. We’ve been analyzing this topic in class and we had to complete this task. I hope you like it!

Catalina María Rela

AS HISTORY – SENIOR 5 2017

 

“How far was the Agricultural Revolution responsible for the start of the Industrial Revolution? Explain.”

 

The Industrial Revolution was the final consequence of new and different processes, inventions and ideals that occurred in the 18th century. One of the causes that made the revolution break out was the Agricultural Revolution, but there were other causes that contributed to its outbreak. The advances in transportation and communication, the development of the steam engine and the 18th century society also made the beginning of the Revolution possible.

To begin with, the Agricultural Revolution was very responsible for the start of the Industrial Revolution. Before the Industrial Revolution, practically all the countries economies’ were based on Agriculture. People used to harvest in whatever piece of land they liked, there was not any owner of the land and there were not any rights on the land, it was not considered a “property”. New harvesting tools and inventions were starting to develop and were really popular. Also, chemical inventions such as fertilisers were invented. These kind of inventions sped up harvests and kind of displaced peasants from their traditional works. Following that process, another process began: Land enclosure. Landowners began enclosing areas of common land and using them to produce a diversity of crops, not only basic food. The peasants that used to work and live on these lands had to move away since they did not have nor job nor place place to live. A totally new social class was beginning to form, social changes were about to be seen. In conclusion, for all the reasons mentioned above, that is why the Agricultural Revolution was responsible for the start of the Industrial Revolution, but it was not the only cause.

Furthermore, another utterly important cause were the advances in transportation and communication. It all started with the development of the steam engines. This new invention allowed machinery in factories to be quicker and more efficient. As machinery in factories worked better, production boomed and so there were more products that needed to be sold. So, the technology of the steam engine was also applied to transportations. Trains and boats had now this kind of technology that allowed them to be transported in a quicker way. Railways were installed all over the country. These kind of railways were more resistant since they were made up of iron and not of wood like in the past. New markets were opened with the building of the railways and canals. More food was distributed to all over the countries so this led to less food shortages and lower prices. Also, in some countries like Britain, they did not have internal tariffs so it was a win-win situation for producers. More loads could be carried since the railways were more resistant and the fuel, steam, was cheaper than the old fuel, coal. In conclusion, for all the reasons mentioned above, that is why the development of the steam engine and the advances in transportation and communication were responsible for the start of the Industrial Revolution, but there were not the only causes.

Moreover, the changes in society were also responsible for the start of the Industrial Revolution. The Agricultural Revolution had made people migrate to the cities looking for a new job. These agrarian workers got work in factories, producing food or other types of industrial products. Since production was blossoming thanks to the new factories, to the railways, to the steam engine and to the availability of new workers that had moved from rural areas to the cities, there were lots of cheap food available  This provoked a great population growth. Also, new medical advances were being developed so the death rate was lowering more and more. In conclusion, the changes in society were also responsible for the start of the Industrial Revolution, but there were other causes as well.

All in all, the Industrial Revolution was the final consequence of new and different processes, inventions and ideals that occurred in the 18th century.  There were different causes that made the Revolution start. Some of the causes that made the revolution begin where the Agricultural Revolution, the advances in transportation and communication, the development of the steam engine and the 18th century society. All these causes were responsible for the start of the Revolution.

The Berlin Blockade

In history we are studying “The Cold War”. Since we are analyzing it deeply, we are now seeing “The Berlin Blockade” which was a very important event that occured in 1948. To understand this event fully and all of its causes and consequences, we had to do a task.

Firstly, we had to choose a video explaining the topic. Then, Lenny picked out from our selection of videos, the best ones. Secondly, using the material in our videos we had to complete a chart and answer some questions. Thirdly, we had to publish in our blogs the completed task. Here is mine!

CHART

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QUESTIONS

  1. What was life like in Berlin in the post-war era?

Berlin was divided into two. The west part was capitalist and was divided into three zones: The French zone, the British zone and the American zone. The east part was communist and was under Soviet control. Berlin was devastated, it had suffered a lot and its people were also going through very harsh times.

  1. How did Soviet policy towards Berlin differ from that of the West?

The west part was capitalist and they wanted Berlin to grow and recover. In the other side, the communist part wanted to keep the country crippled.

  1. Why was reform of the German currency a key issue for both sides?

Because it was symbol of union, the west side wanted to show their power and alliance. Also as a (major) plus, it was easier to trade and it gave an assured economic stability.

  1. Why was the airlift such a major feat?

The airlift showed this union the allies wanted to demonstrate. It showed power, they wouldn’t be doomed by the soviets. The capitalists found the way to go over communism.  Thanks to the airlift, the west part was improving whilst the east part was in decadency. The east part could see the capitalist prosperity and compared to their poverty it was really frustrating. Also, 11 months later, the Soviets retired the blockade because it wasn’t working. The capitalists were very intelligent with this strategy.

  1. In what respect can the USSR and US be responsible for further increasing tensions during the airlift?

The tension during the airlift was very strong. The soviets thought it was a capitalist attack and they were prepared to shoot down the planes. Tension was the main protagonist at first but then the airlift were a daily thing so it just got common.

  1. Why did Stalin eventually agree to talks over the airlift?

Stalin agreed to talk over the airlift because he saw the strength of the allies. They wouldn’t gave up so quickly as he had thought. Also, with the airlift the allies were giving even more help to Berlin that before the blockade. After 11 months of blockade, he opened communication and the airlift was over.

On the Verge of War

In history, we have been analyzing the background of the WWII. Lenny, our history teacher, asked us to see a “Meograph” made by past students, which explained the causes of WWII.

HERE is the meograph. What I liked about this video was the way they made connections. They connected what was happening in the 1930s to what was happening in the 1920s. Also,  it was very helpful to me to see where the events ocurred in the map. The images were good.

Then, we had to make a “Fakebook”, that is a tool to create fake facebook profiles. I worked with Luz Garcia Fernandez and we had the history character Pierre Laval. HERE is our work.

Finally, we had to see an animation that showed Hitler’s European conquest. HERE is the video. What I liked about the animation was that is very different to read from a textbook than seeing a video. It had great music and sound effects as well.

 

The Manchurian Crisis

In history we are starting to deal with our first new topic: The Manchurian Crisis. Lenny, our teacher gave us a task. We had to watch a video about the crisis and then, answer some questions. Here is my work!

1)How does the video open? What might the connection between the League and the opening scenes in Poland be?

The video starts with aggressive images of Hitler’s SS taking over Poland. This shows how the league failed in maintaining peace, which was her principal objective.

2)What problems did Japan face? (Mention ALL of them)

Japan faced a few problems. One of them was that her population was growing more everyday (more than 1.000.000 mouths to feed) and she didn’t have enough resources for this growing population. Other problem related to the first one was that Japan didn’t have natural resources to exploit so they had to import (for example, food for the population). Also, a big problem that every European country was facing too was the Great Depression of the 30s, they didn’t have enough money to pay debts and they suffered unemployment as a consequence of the depression.

3)What was the role of the army in Japan?

The army had a great importance in Japan, she had even more importance than the politicians. They were in charge of the education system and they made the practice of martial arts for young people obligatory.

4)What did army leaders believe Japan needed?

Japanese army leaders thought that the only way to solve the crisis and the problems the population was facing was through expansion. They should expand their territory to eastern Asia.

5)What was the value of Manchuria?

Manchuria was important for the Japanese because it had what they needed: natural resources that they could exploit, land for the population and also they had the perfect excuse “the Chinese planted a bomb in our railways, now we are going to attack”. This, obviously was a lie.

6)What happened at Mudken?

The Japanese planted a bomb to their own railway so that they could blame China and have an excuse to invade. China appalled to the league.

7)What did the League do about it?

The league decided that Japan should leave Manchuria and Manchuria should become a independent country. China and Japan shouldn’t be involved anymore.

8)What was Japan’s reaction to the decision of the League?

Japan refused the decision so she left the League and kept Manchuria. The league couldn’t do anything since Japan was a very powerful country and no one could physically intervene.

History Source Work

Since this year we are sitting for the History IGCSE examination, we had been practicing how to analyze sources and relate them to different topics. This time, we had to scan with our cellphones some QR codes our teacher Lenny Ambrosini gave us. Depending on the codes, we had different sources (images). Some of them related to the depression in the USA, others related to Nazi Germany, and what my code had was a source related on the positive aspects of the 20s boom. I looked for other partners that had the same topic and started working. We had to analyze the sources all together (my group was: Catalina Grosso, Delfina Miy Uranga, Gonzalo Vazquez Avila, Nicolas Monguzzi  and Delfina Santayana) and then put the images we had in a collage. Here is the work, I hope you enjoy it!PicMonkey Collage

WORKERS-SKYSCRAPER-BOOM ON INDUSTRY

This is a primary source because it is a real photo that was taken in the 1920s. In this image you can see some workers eating and resting on scaffolding. This is a very interesting picture because it shows how many people were working on this kind of risky jobs, it can be deadly to be working on such high places without protection, this people probably used to be unemployed before. This picture is very characteristic of the 1920’s because this decade was a huge boom of house construction, and skyscrapers started appearing.

WOMAN SMOKING

This is a primary source, it seems to be a painting of a woman smoking which before the boom it was seem as a good habit. It show class and it made women look like men. They wanted to look like men so they could have the same rights.

NEWSPAPER-STOCK MARKET

This is a picture of the cover of a real 1920’s newspaper (primary source), here you can read titles that show prosperity, people encourage others to keep buying shares because as the title says, the stock market is going great, the people in the picture seem to be happy and well off. As we know, in the 1920’s people were enjoying life and getting easy money at the stock market, and even the government encouraged them to do so.

 

Rearmament

In history we are doing a project with the students in senior 3. Here you can have more information about it.

REARMAMENT

After the impact of the WW1, the allies wanted to make sure that Germany wouldn´t recover enough to start another conflict such as this one. After a long discussion, the Allies agreed to put some limits on the Germans by The Treaty of Versailles. 

One of the terms of the Treaty set that:

  • The German army had to be limited to 100,000 men which had to be voluteers (conscription was banned)
  • Germany wasn´t allowed to use armoured vehicles, submarines or aircraft
  • The navy could only build six battleships
  • The Rhineland should be a demilitarised zone

With the raise of Hitler to power in 1933, Europe suffered some severe changes which radically permutated the world.

Hitler had three aims, but the main one was to abolish the Treaty of Versailles, which he thought that had been very unjust towards the Germans.

That´s how he initiated a process to make Germany a big power again.

Firstly, he increased Germany´s armed forces. Secondly, he drafted unemployed workers to the army (which helped him to reduce unemployment).

At first, he kept this as a secret, but then he staged a massive military rally celebrating the german armed forces.

Although Hitler´s actions went against the Treaty of Versailles, the allies did nothing about it because many other countries were using rearmament as a way to fight unemployment. Furthermore, Britain thought that the limits put on Germany´s armed forces were too tight, and believed that she could be a good buffer against communism.

The insignificance that the allies showed towards Hitler´s actions gave him enough confidence to continue breaking the terms of the Treaty.

SOURCES:

Source 1.

This is a primary source. The picture shows the massification of the Massive Military Rally in 1935, celebrating the German armed forces. Hitler was breaking a term of the Treaty Of Versailles.