Archivo de la categoría: literature


Pato Chujman, our literature teacher gave us a task. We had to write an essay based on the poems “A birthday” and “Pied Beauty”. Here is mine:

Explore the ways in which the poets use words and phrases to create striking effects in Pied Beauty (by Gerard Manley Hopkins) and A Birthday (by Christina Rossetti)

Pied beauty and A Birthday are two poems that have this topic in common. Both are written with very striking words and phrases. This means, written with the intention to get your attention and have the power to produce vivid impressions on the sight or the mind. In the following essay I’m going to analyze how Hopkins and Rosetti create these effects.

Firstly I’m going to talk about pied beauty. Pied beauty is a poem about thanking God for all the things he had done, and to do this, Hopkins uses striking phrases. “Glory be to god for dappled things”. This phrase is very impressive. The word “glory” creates an effect of greatness and power. He is thanking God for all the things He had created, these things aren’t “perfect”, they are dappled, with spots with different shades of color, tone and form. To continue with this idea of all things made by God are perfect, he puts another phrase “All things counter”.  Here the poet is saying that “all” things God had created  are impeccable, it doesn’t matter if they are “sweet” , “sour”, “original”, “strange”, “spare”, “fickle” or “freckled”.  The poem ends with the most impressive and remarkable phrase “Praise him”.  By the word “praise” he expresses all his admiration and his grateful homage to God.

Secondly, I’m going to talk about A birthday. The poem is about a man/woman that is very happy. The poem has a romantic and tranquil atmosphere, it gives us the impression that the voice is going through a very good moment of his/her life. “My heart is like a rainbow shell that paddles in a halcyon sea”. Her heart is very tranquil, feeling really great, without worries. Her heart is feeling so well she describes it like a rainbow, using the perfection and symmetry of it to compare her heart. She is navigating through an idyllic sea with her delighted heart. This is a really vivid phrase which takes us to an imaginary place. To finish with stanza one, the last two lines are introduced “My heart is gladder than all these, because my love is come to me”. Here, Christina expresses that the voice is more delighted and pleased that all the things mentioned above like the “halcyon sea”. This is because her love has arrived and she/he is very gay about it.

To conclude, both poems are very descriptive and these descriptions are so vivid that make us imagine we are in other place, transported to another reality.

A birthday

We have been analyzing the poem “A birthday” by Cristina Rosetti. We had to do an activity in pairs about the poem, here is mine!

a. What is the theme?
b. What is the tone?

Happy, joyful, soft, calm, tranquil, peaceful, reflective, relaxing and positive.

c. What is the main difference between the two stanzas?

In the first stanza her heart is compared to nature, but in the second one it’s compared to man made objects.
d. How are the similes in the poem appropriate for the romantic longings the speaker feels?

Some of the similes that Christina uses in the poem are related to her feelings. She is trying to say that she feels complete, fulfilled with happiness, overjoyed. That she finds herself in a good moment of life, she is calmed and satisfied.


Most of the similes in the poem that she uses are about her feelings. Shes expressing herself through words that help her express herself. Christina is happy, she is living a happy moment which she finds herself happy, overjoyed and in peace.  


In our opinion she is expressing her feelings very well. She gives us the feeling she is happy, joyful and enjoying the moment. “My heart is like a rainbow shell that paddles in a halcyon sea”. Her heart is very tranquil, feeling really great, without worries. Her heart is feeling so well she describes it like a rainbow, using the perfection and symmetry of it to compare her heart. She is navigating through an idyllic sea with her delighted heart.

e. How is the metaphor of the birthday appropriate?

Earthly life and ‘life after life’: The images of new life in the natural world in A Birthday can be seen to allude to new life after death.
f. Make a list of religious symbols. What do they mean in the poem?

A singing bird: Christina compares her heart to a singing bird. The singing bird symbolizes God, he is always present in her heart and she can listen to him.

Watered shoot: It symbolizes the promise of God, that he will guide us and always provide our needs. It also alludes to the holy water.

An apple tree: the appearance of this word may allude to the first humans in the garden of Eden, where they lived in peace with nature and water and one another. Also it is related to the biblical concept of the tree of life.

Rainbow: Christina perceives that God’s promises are being fulfilled and her life is as perfect as the rainbow.


Unseen paper

We had to work in pairs in an unseen essay practice. I was with Luna Perez Muniz. The following is our essay.

How do the writer’s words make you feel about Robert and the way he behaves towards Colin and Mary?

In the following essay I am going to analyze how the writer’s words make readers feel about Robert and about the way he behaves towards Colin and Mary.

Firstly, I will mention and describe the writer’s descriptions towards Robert. It says that Robert was a “…squat figure…”, “He was shorter than Colin, but his arms were exceptionally long and muscular.”, “…The backs covered with matted hair.” This descriptions give us an uncomfortable impression, likely of a bouncer, a violent person. Not someone with good intentions. A sense of insecurity, intimidation fills the atmosphere.

Secondly, I will analyse the way Colin and Mary react to him. As Robert wants to take them to a good place he knows to eat, he gets very excited and starts to make the tourist couple feel uncomfortable. He grabs them and pushes them. Colin here “…[tries] to detach his wrist without appearing violent.” As Robert doesn’t seem to understand “Mary [speaks] to him as to a child. `Robert, let go of my hand´.” In a moment, since Robert was really excited and didn’t actually understood Colin and Mary didn’t want to be treated that way, “Collin pulled Robert to a halt and jerked his hand free”. After this, Mary and Colin walked “…distanced from Robert.”

Finally, we can see how the writer’s descriptions and the way the couple reacts, creates a feeling or atmosphere of tension. We can notice that through the following quotes. “…trying to detach his wrist…”; “…Robert began to pull them back down the street.” That action gives tension to the atmosphere, being controlled, being forced to do something. In a moment Colin gets angry and said to Robert in an almost violent way “`And you’d better let go of me too´” so Robert would let go of Colin’s hand. Also, it mentions nearly to the end that they were dragged to an “..alley…”. This is a very intrusive place to be, more with a person who you don’t know. Tension appears there again. It appears a lot throughout the text.

In conclusion, throughout this essay you could notice how the writer makes the readers feel about Robert by describing him and the actions he gets involved and the conversation that holds with Colin and Mary. Very tense, intimidating and uncomfortable.

A horse and two goats essay

In Literaure we have been reading the story: ‘A Horse and two Goats’, and we had to write an essay about it’s main theme: the clash of cultures. Here is mine.

The most important theme in “A Horse and two Goats”, and in fact the central theme of Narayan´s work, is the clash of cultures. Do you agree?


In A Horse and two Goats, Narayan writes about the encounter between two cultures: Indian and American. Also, he deals with the consequences of this encounter.

Firstly, the poem deals with the differences between the two protagonists. Apart from language, money is also a big problem. Muni is stuck in Kritam, he had been living there for all his life. But the tourist, he is in a vacation. He can simply enjoy visiting other places and cultures because he has money. Not like Muni, he’s poor.

Secondly, the story deals with the lack of communication between Muni that is Indian, and the tourist that is American. They try to speak with one and other but it’s not possible because of the fact that Muni speaks Tamil and the tourist speaks English. Despite of this, they keep on having a senseless conversation. Language is part of your culture and your identity.

Thirdly, the theme of “ignorance” is also part of clash of cultures. Both of the protagonists are very ignorant towards the two cultures. The “red-faced man” underestimates Indian culture and Muni doesn’t even understand him.

To conclude, the most important theme in the story is the clash of cultures, because there is an encounter of two very different languages and identities.


Getting postcolonial

“A horse and two goats” was written by R.K. Narayan in 1970. It paints a perfect picture of Indian life after their independence from the British Empire in 1947. Bearing this in mind is essential when first tackling this literary piece as setting, context of production and culture seem pervasive. We are then invited to explore not only Postcolonialism as a historical phenomenon but the sense of Indianness as well.

Here goes a presentation that will, hopefully, aid you in the understanding of the macrocosm of this short story.

Literature Essay

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At literature class we have read a poem called “Composed Upon Westminster Bridge”, and our teacher, Pato Chujman, told us to write an essay about it. Here’s mine:

Explore amazement (Surprise) at nature and man-made objects in “Composed Upon Westminster Bridge”

In the poem “Composed Upon Westminster Bridge” the writer expresses how amazed he is with London in the morning, nature and man-made objects.

Firstly the poem deals with amazement with nature. Wordsworth is so amazed with nature, “Never did sun more beautifully steep”; here he means that the sun had never before shone as beautiful as that. In the poem he uses literary to terms to describe nature, “The river glideth at his own sweet will”. To do something at your own will is something you wish for. A river cannot think, so here the writer is personifying the river. In this line he means that the river flowed at a peaceful pace.

Secondly the poem deals with the beauty of London in its “first splendor”. He compares the silent, tranquil and peaceful London in the morning to the noisy and strident daytime. The city seems so calm that “the very houses seem asleep”. Here he also personifies the houses. He has never seen or felt a calm so deep, he describes in the poem.

In conclusion the writer is amazed of the beauty of London in all its aspects, nature, morning and man-made objects.

Horses by Edwin Muir

Here is the activity que did in class about the new poem we have started reading, ‘Horses’. THIS was the task and here is my comment:

In my opinion ‘horses’ is a poem in which horses as described in two aspects: the author when he was a kid and the author when he is an adult. As a kid, he’s scared about the horses but when he grows up he discovers about how wonderful and lovely horses are. The poem deals with a lot of memories and flashbacks of the author’s childhood and also the perspective of a kid seeing a horse is shown.